Class: Concurrent::Exchanger

Inherits:
ExchangerImplementation
  • Object
show all
Defined in:
lib/concurrent/exchanger.rb

Overview

Note:

Edge Feature: Edge features are under active development and may change frequently. They are expected not to keep backward compatibility (there may also lack tests and documentation). Semantic versions will be obeyed though. Features developed in concurrent-ruby-edge are expected to move to concurrent-ruby when final.

A synchronization point at which threads can pair and swap elements within pairs. Each thread presents some object on entry to the exchange method, matches with a partner thread, and receives its partner's object on return.

Thread-safe Variable Classes

Each of the thread-safe variable classes is designed to solve a different problem. In general:

  • Agent: Shared, mutable variable providing independent, uncoordinated, asynchronous change of individual values. Best used when the value will undergo frequent, complex updates. Suitable when the result of an update does not need to be known immediately.
  • Atom: Shared, mutable variable providing independent, uncoordinated, synchronous change of individual values. Best used when the value will undergo frequent reads but only occasional, though complex, updates. Suitable when the result of an update must be known immediately.
  • AtomicReference: A simple object reference that can be atomically. Updates are synchronous but fast. Best used when updates a simple set operations. Not suitable when updates are complex. AtomicBoolean and AtomicFixnum are similar but optimized for the given data type.
  • Exchanger: Shared, stateless synchronization point. Used when two or more threads need to exchange data. The threads will pair then block on each other until the exchange is complete.
  • MVar: Shared synchronization point. Used when one thread must give a value to another, which must take the value. The threads will block on each other until the exchange is complete.
  • ThreadLocalVar: Shared, mutable, isolated variable which holds a different value for each thread which has access. Often used as an instance variable in objects which must maintain different state for different threads.
  • TVar: Shared, mutable variables which provide coordinated, synchronous, change of many stated. Used when multiple value must change together, in an all-or-nothing transaction. This implementation is very simple, using only a single slot for each exchanger (unlike more advanced implementations which use an "arena"). This approach will work perfectly fine when there are only a few threads accessing a single Exchanger. Beyond a handful of threads the performance will degrade rapidly due to contention on the single slot, but the algorithm will remain correct.

Examples:


exchanger = Concurrent::Exchanger.new

threads = [
  Thread.new { puts "first: " << exchanger.exchange('foo', 1) }, #=> "first: bar"
  Thread.new { puts "second: " << exchanger.exchange('bar', 1) } #=> "second: foo"
]
threads.each {|t| t.join(2) }

See Also:

Instance Method Summary (collapse)

Constructor Details

- (undocumented) initialize



# File 'lib/concurrent/exchanger.rb', line 341

Instance Method Details

- (Object) exchange(value, timeout = nil)

Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return. The timeout value indicates the approximate number of seconds the method should block while waiting for the exchange. When the timeout value is nil the method will block indefinitely.

In some edge cases when a timeout is given a return value of nil may be ambiguous. Specifically, if nil is a valid value in the exchange it will be impossible to tell whether nil is the actual return value or if it signifies timeout. When nil is a valid value in the exchange consider using #exchange! or #try_exchange instead.

Parameters:

  • value (Object)

    the value to exchange with another thread

  • timeout (Numeric, nil) (defaults to: nil)

    in seconds, nil blocks indefinitely

Returns:

  • (Object)

    the value exchanged by the other thread or nil on timeout



# File 'lib/concurrent/exchanger.rb', line 344

- (Object) exchange!(value, timeout = nil)

Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return. The timeout value indicates the approximate number of seconds the method should block while waiting for the exchange. When the timeout value is nil the method will block indefinitely.

On timeout a TimeoutError exception will be raised.

Parameters:

  • value (Object)

    the value to exchange with another thread

  • timeout (Numeric, nil) (defaults to: nil)

    in seconds, nil blocks indefinitely

Returns:

  • (Object)

    the value exchanged by the other thread

Raises:



# File 'lib/concurrent/exchanger.rb', line 348

- (Concurrent::Maybe) try_exchange(value, timeout = nil)

Waits for another thread to arrive at this exchange point (unless the current thread is interrupted), and then transfers the given object to it, receiving its object in return. The timeout value indicates the approximate number of seconds the method should block while waiting for the exchange. When the timeout value is nil the method will block indefinitely.

The return value will be a Maybe set to Just on success or Nothing on timeout.

Examples:


exchanger = Concurrent::Exchanger.new

result = exchanger.exchange(:foo, 0.5)

if result.just?
  puts result.value #=> :bar
else
  puts 'timeout'
end

Parameters:

  • value (Object)

    the value to exchange with another thread

  • timeout (Numeric, nil) (defaults to: nil)

    in seconds, nil blocks indefinitely

Returns:

  • (Concurrent::Maybe)

    on success a Just maybe will be returned with the item exchanged by the other thread as #value; on timeout a Nothing maybe will be returned with TimeoutError as #reason



# File 'lib/concurrent/exchanger.rb', line 355